Polytheism and Judaism

Jonathan Zasloff at the Reality-Based Community has a lovely piece up this morning reflecting on a place where the Psalms refer to the God of the Jews as being “among the gods.” It certainly puts a different spin on the idea that monotheism meant “only one God exists.” There are multiple places in the Jewish scriptures where the existence of other gods is explicitly noted. Jews aren’t told that other gods don’t exist, only that they shouldn’t worship them. “Thou shalt have no other gods before me,” as the commandment goes.

It’s only many hundreds of years later that the idea develops that only one God exists and all others are “false gods” or evil spirits masquerading as gods. (I’m not even going to get into the discussion of why people would say that an immortal, invisible being with supernatural powers isn’t a god. Ditto the saints.) The same problem faced Islam when it arose in the midst of polytheistic Arabia, so much so that Islam’s definitive statement of faith starts out, “There is no god but God.”

I think it’s interesting to note that monotheism isn’t necessarily a natural idea for humans, and it certainly didn’t sweep away that old-fashioned polytheism in one fell swoop thousands of years ago.

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About Literata

Literata is a Wiccan priestess and writer. She edited Crossing the River: An Anthology in Honor of Sacred Journeys, and her poetry, rituals, and nonfiction have appeared in works such as Mandragora, Unto Herself, and Anointed as well as multiple periodicals. Literata has presented rituals and workshops at Sacred Space conference, Fertile Ground Gathering, and other mid-Atlantic venues. Literata offers healing and divination services as well as customized life-cycle rituals. She is currently completing her doctoral dissertation in history with the support of her husband and four cats.
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2 Responses to Polytheism and Judaism

  1. Sherrian says:

    Someone once described monotheism to me as being a kind of spiritual monogamy. “I’m married, but that doesn’t mean that my husband is the only man who exists.”

    If we think of a theology of relationships, I suppose it makes sense; out of a potential universe of beings, the believer chooses one to be *his* God… just as he chooses one person to be *his* spouse.

    It certainly makes sense in the light of “You will be My people, and I will be your God.”

    I also suspect that this might actually be henotheism. But hey…

  2. Literata says:

    Spiritual monogamy – I like it. On further reading, it appears that the technical term for knowing there are others but only worshiping one would be monolatry.

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